Moldova’s economy is built upon agriculture followed by fruits, vegetables, wine and tobacco. The country’s extremely fruitful land and climate allow the cultivation of a variety of crops. The industry is dominated by food processing, traditionally the country has specialized in frozen and canned vegetables. Moldova also has a metal-refining industry, almost entirely dependent upon important raw materials and fuels. More than one quarter of Moldova’s industrial plants are located in Transnistria. The Republic of Moldova is poorly endowed with natural resources, apart from its fertile soil. It is entirely dependent on imports to meet many of its consumer, manufacturing and energy needs. Moldova has small oil and gas reserves and must import all of its energy supplies mainly from Russia.
Import articles (2007):
Mineral products (21,4%); electrical machines, instruments, electzrical commodities (14,8%); base metals (9,1%), manufactures of the chemical industry (8,6%), vehicles and accessories (7,8%); textiles and textile goods ( 6,8%); foodstuff, tobacco (6,4%); plastics, rubber (6,1%); herbal products (4,1%); manufactures from brick, cement, ceramic, glass (2,8%); pulp, paper, carton (2,7%)
Export articles (2007):
Textiles and textile goods (20,6%); foodstuff, tobacco (20,6%); herbal products (12,1%); base metals (9,1%); electrical machines, instruments, electzrical commodities (6,8%); mineral products (4,3%); organic oil and fat (4,1%); manufactures from brick, cement, ceramic, glass (3%); shoes, headgear, umbrellas and similar commodities (3%)
Trading partners (2007):
European Union (export: 50,6%, import: 45,6%), Commonwealth of Independent States (export: 41%, import: 36,1%), other countries (export: 8,4%, import: 18,3%)
AWO-Länderreport, March 2008
Located in the south-east of Europe, Moldova is bordered on the west by Romania and on the north, south and east by Ukraine. The total area is 33 843 square km, the distance between the northern and southern extreme limit is 350 km and from east to west it is 150 km. It is the second-smallest of the former Soviet republics.
The centre zone of the country lies between the two rivers Dnister and Prut. The Prut joins the Danube before flowing into the Black Sea and forms Moldova’s entire western boundary with Romania. The Dniester forms a small part of Moldova’s border with Ukraine in the north-east, but it mainly flows through the eastern part of the country, seperating Bessarabia and Transnistria.
Moldova’s closeness to the Black Sea gives it a mild and sunny climate: the summers are warm and long, with temperatures averaging about 20°C, and the winters are relatively mild and dry, with temperatures averaging -4°C.The country’s highest point is the Dealul Bălăneşti with 430 metres, located in the West of the country.
Moldova is a unitary parlamentary representative democratic republic divided in 32 raions, the apostet province Transnistria and the autonomous territorial unit Gagauzia. The Constitution of Moldova was adopted in 1994, in order to amend the constitution, a parliamentary majority of at least two thirds is required.
The country’s central legislative body is the unicameral Moldovan parliament, which has 101 seats, and whose members are elected by popular vote every four years. The head of the state is the president, who is elected by Parliament for a four-year term (eligible for a second term), requiring the support of three fifths of deputies (at least 61 votes). The president appoints a prime minister who is the head of government. The Constitution also establishes an independent Constitutional Court, which has the power of judical review over all acts of parliaments, presidential decrees and international treaties.
The year 2009 was a very turbulent year in the young history of the Republic of Moldova. After the Communist’s landslide victory in the April’s election, the opposition and several NGO leaders rejected the results and accused the authoristies of falsification. In the following protests, rioters charged the Molodvan Parliament and the Presidency, looted it and set fire. After a recount of the votes, the Communists and the opposition could in two attempts not agree on a president which caused re-elections in July 2009. The winner of this election was the Alliance for European Integration, a four party coalition. Neither the Communists nor the Alliance for European Integration combined has the three-fifths of parliament, 61 seats, necessary to elect a new president without gaining the support of some members of the other side. The acting president of the Republic of Moldova was Mihai Ghimpu (Partidul Liberal) until the re-re-elections in September 2010
Again the strongest party in the Republic of Moldova became the Party of Communists, although the Alliance for European Integration, a coalition of the Liberal Democratic Party, the Liberal Party, the Democratic Party and the Our Moldova Alliance, received more votes even though not enough for the 61 seats to elect the president. The acting president of the state is Marian Lupu (Partidul Democrat din Moldova) since 30 December 2010. Other parties are the Christian-Democratic People’s Party, the National Liberal Party, the Social Democratic Party, the Social Political Movement MAE and the Ecological Party.
International Organisations in Moldova:
ACCT, BSEC, CE, CEI, CIS, EAEC (observer), EAPC, EBRD, FAO, GCTU, GUAM, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, ITUC, MIGA, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SECI, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
From the 14th century most of today’s Moldova was part of the Principality of Moldavia. Bogdan I became the first independent prince of Moldavia after rejecting Hungarian authority in 1359. The greatest Moldavian prince was Ştefan cel Mare (Stephen the Great) who ruled the Principality of Moldavia from 1457-1504. With his army of boyars and retainers, Stephen fought off invasions from the Ottoman Empire, the Kingdom of Poland and the Crimean Tatars.
By the Treaty of Bucharest following the Russo-Turkish War (1806-1812), Moldavia lost Bessarabia – the Eastern part of the principality – to Russia and Bukovina to Austria. In 1859, Moldavia and Wallachia formed the Kingdom of Romania, including the Southern part of Bessarabia in 1866.
The Independence of the Democratic Republic of Moldova was proclaimed in January 1918. On March 27, 1918 the Sfatul Ţării, the National Council, voted for the unification with Romania. On August 2, 1940, as a consequence of the Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact the Soviet government created the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic (Moldavian SSR), with its capital Kishinev (Chişinău in Romanian). After the vicissitudes of WW II the Soviet Union incorporated the Moldavian SSR, with its parts Bessarabia, northern Bukovina and Transnistria in 1947.
On August 27, 1991 the Republic of Moldova became an independent and sovereign state. As a consequence of inner political conflicts Gagauzia became an autonomus province. The situation in Transnistria is more complex and still not solved.
Official form: Republic of Moldova (Republica Moldova)
Short form: Moldova
Former: Moldovan Soviet Socialist Republic
Official language: Romanian, officially called Moldovan (though it is a Romanian dialect)
Recognised regional languages: Russian, Gagauz, Ukrainian
Climate: moderate winters, warm summers
Location: Eastern Europe
Geographic coordinates: 47 00 N, 29 00 E
Capital: Chişinău (Kishinev): 717,000 (2010)
Tiraspol: 159,000 (2010)
Bălţi: 143,000 (2010)
Bender: 94,000 (2008)
Total: 33,843 sq km
Land: 33,371 sq km
Water: 472 sq km
Land boundaries: total: 1,389 km
Border countries: Romania 450 km, Ukraine 939 km
Type: Republic (since 1991)
Independence: August 27, 1991 (from Soviet Union)
Head of State: President Mihai Ghimpu
Head of Government: Prime Ministers Zinaida Greceanîi, Vitali Pîrlog, Vlad Filat
Constitution: new constitution adopted on July 29, 1994, effective on August 27, 1994; it replaced the old Soviet constitution of 1979
Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Constitutional Court (the sole authority for constitutional judicature)
Military branches: National Army: Ground Forces, Rapid Reaction Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces (2008)
Administrative divisions: 32 raions (raioane), 3 municipalities (municipiul), 1 autonomous territorial unit (unitatea teritoriala autonoma), and 1 territorial unit (unitatea teritoriala)
municipalities: Chişinău, Bălţi, Bender
autonomous territorial unit: Gagauzia (Gagauz Yeri)
territorial unit: Transnistria (full name: Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic – PMR)
Population: 3,500,000 + 555.000 PMR (2010); PMR1,000,000 abroad (2008 est.)
Population Density: 127.2 per sq km
Population growth rate: -0.092% (2008)
Birth rate: 10.9 births/1,000 population (2008)
Death rate: 11.8 deaths/1,000 population (2008)
Life expectancy: 65 years (men), 72 years (women)
Moldovan 78.2%, Ukrainian 8.4%, Russian 5.8%, Gagauz 4.4%, Bulgarian 1.9%, other 1.3% (2004 census)
Eastern Orthodox 98%, Jewish 1.5%, Baptist and other 0.5%
total: $9.821 billion
per capita: $2,900
GDP – real growth rate: 6% (2007 est.)
Public debt: 23.3% of GDP (2007 est.)
Inflation rate: 12.6% (2007 est.)
$1.361 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Exports – partners:
Russia 20.8%, Romania 13.9%, Italy 10.7%, Ukraine 9.3%, Germany 9%, Poland 6.7%, Belarus 4.5% (2006)
$3.677 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Imports – partners:
Russia 20%, Ukraine 15.8%, Romania 15%, Germany 8.8%, Italy 5.7%, Poland 4.1% (2006)
Agriculture – products:
vegetables, fruits, wine, grain, sugar beets, sunflower seed, tobacco; beef, milk
sugar, vegetable oil, food processing, agricultural machinery; foundry equipment, refrigerators and freezers, washing machines; hosiery, shoes, textiles
Currency (code): Moldovan Leu (MDL)
1 Jan New Year’s Day
8 Jan Orthodox Christmas
8 Mar International Women’s Day
4 Apr Orthodox Easter
1 May Labour Day
9 May Victory and Commemoration Day
27 Aug Independence Day (National Holiday)
31 Aug Limba Noastră (National Language Day)
23 Feb Day of Defenders of Motherland
7 Nov October Revolution
24 Dec Constitution Day
19 Aug Independence Day
23 Dec Independence Day
The country profile provides basic information about the Republic of Moldova. Study it carefully and be prepared to get under the skin of Moldova.
Moldovarious.com have become an active part in Moldova’s society since its arrival. Thus we organise, co-organise or simply take part in positive social, cultural and political events. See the list below, to get to know more about the most important events we have joined:
Anti Racism Seminar at Moldovan State University (USM)
Thomas Gassler from Moldovarious.com was invited at USM to talk about antiracist activities in Austria. The seminar was organsied by the faculty of journalism in the frame of the Football Against Racism in Europe action week on 26th of October 2009.
Moldovarious.com was involved in the monitoring of the after-election-events interviewing NGO-representatives, journalists, students and foreigners involved in the demonstrations on April 6 and 7. The human rights organisation LIBERA writes a report of the happenings and possible violations of human rights on behalf of the EU-Parliament.
Austrian Days at ULIM
During the Austrian days on 15th and 16th of April, which were organised by ULIM – Free International University of Chisinau, Moldovarious.com presented next to other Austrian institutions and companies like AUA – Austrian Airlines and ADA – Austrian Development Agency its project.
Guest speaker at Tolerance Club
The Tolerance club organised a round table with the topic “Identity issues in Moldova with focus on stereotypes, prejudices and discrimination” in the frame of the “International Tolerance Week” on 5th of November. Moldovarious.com and a representative of the European Cultural Museum in Berlin were invited as special guests.
FARE Action Week in Football in Chisianu
On 1st of November Moldovarious.com, the NGO Fatima and the Charity Centre for Refugees (CCR) kicked in an united effort racism during the 9th European Action Week against Racism in Football. Next to a multicultural football tournament, a panel discussion with Moldovan Football Association officials, black players and refugees was the highlights of the activities.
Panel Discussion with Young Journalists
On 29th of October Moldovarious.com were invited in the weekly discussion club of the School of Advanced Journalism (SSAJ) in Chisinau. 15 young students discussed lively about about the quality of the media in Austria and Moldova.
Human Right Seminar in Varnita
On 6th of September Moldovarious.com were attentive participants in the seminar “The role of youth in promoting human rights and democratic values” in Varnita, a small village at the Moldovan-Transnistrian border.
Inter-ethnical Summer School in Tvardita
From 22nd to 24th of August Moldovarious.com participated in the inter-ethnical Summer School in Tvardita, a Bulgariian village in the south. Pupils with Moldovan, Russian, Ukranian, Bulgarian and Gagausian background from the Republic of Moldova and Transnistria shared their experiences in seminars and cultural events.
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Patrick Griesser and Mag. Thomas Gassler are the bright minds of the website Moldovarious.com. Political, cultural, social and economic issues of the Republic of Moldova are of major interest of their critical research. Moldovarious.com forms the basis for Griesser’s diploma thesis at Innsbruck University including a documentary report about Moldova.
Moldovarious.com is a non-political, non-governmental and non-commercial website.
Patrick Griesser, journalist and student of political science at the Leopold-Franzens University in Innsbruck, early discovered his love for Eastern Europe. As part of his studies he completed several political and social internships in Eastern Europe and Africa.
Research interests: international relations, ethnic conflicts, minority issues
Mag. Thomas Gassler, former English, Italian and German teacher in Romania, works as a journalist and project supervisor. Next to his mother tongue German, he speaks Romanian and four more languages. He is highly motivated to add Russian to his list. Having run several social projects, he primarily reports about social issues in Moldova.
Research interests: international development cooperation, educational systems, youth and subcultures, gender issues